which of the following application uses voltage to current converter?

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The output current is usually proportional to the input voltage, over some suitable range. The Op-amp used for this purpose is IC LM741. The following are the basic applications of op-amp − ... A voltage to current converter or V to I converter, is an electronic circuit that takes current as the input and produces voltage as the output. Consider resistance of the offset voltage compensating network to be 10Ω. d) 2mA Figure 2. View Answer, 7. So sometimes it is essential to create current which is corresponding or proportional to a definite voltage. Following are the circuit arrangement of Single phase half wave rectifier. Here we are trying to convert the supply voltage frequency to 1/4 th of its value. View Answer, 6. The alternating current mainly used for electrical devices used in homes like radio, lights, motor, etc. Voltage and current are the basic electrical quantities. To practice all areas of Linear Integrated Circuits, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers. If the load resistance changes, the load current changes proportionally. d) All of the mentioned If Current input module available will accept a 0-20mA signal, but may not accept a 0-10Vdc signal directly. They are of two types that are explained in detail below. This conversion method can increase or decrease the voltage level. here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers, Prev - Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – High Frequency Op-Amp Equivalent Circuit, Next - Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Voltage to Current Converter with Floating and Grounded Load – 2, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – High Frequency Op-Amp Equivalent Circuit, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Voltage to Current Converter with Floating and Grounded Load – 2, Basic Electrical Engineering Questions and Answers, Instrumentation Transducers Questions and Answers, Electrical Measurements Questions and Answers, Electronic Devices and Circuits Questions and Answers, Linear Integrated Circuits Questions and Answers, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Operational Amplifier Internal Circuit – 4, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Basic DAC Techniques – 1, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Log and Antilog Amplifier, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Input Offset Voltage – 3, Electric Circuits Questions and Answers – Measuring Voltage and Current, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Very High Input Impedance Circuit, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – Effect of Variation in Power Supply Voltage on Offset Voltage, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – A to D Converter – 2, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – AC Amplifiers with Single Supply Voltage, Mechatronics Questions and Answers – Analog Signal Conditioning – Current to Voltage Converters, Linear Integrated Circuit Questions and Answers – A to D Converter – 1. How to modify a low voltage DC voltmeter to low voltage ac voltmeter Higher input voltage can be measured in low voltage DC voltmeter using Most of the signals have either 0 to 10 Vdc or 4-20 mA range. a) Smaller resistance value Inverter types are classified into many based on application like a sine wave, modified sine wave, square wave, voltage source inverter, multilevel inverter, etc. So, it is clear that the resistor decides the current flow in a voltage source circuit or it performs as a simple voltage to current converter (i.e. Applications of current to voltage Converters: 1) Photodiode Current measurement: One of the major applications of current to voltage converter is photo detector amplifier as shown below. This is because DC current signals will be constant throughout the circuit in series from the source to the load. For the input loop, the voltage equation is It is extremely simple to measure 0-10Vdc signal with a device that will measure only Current inputs. Almost all the natural electrical sources are constant voltage sources (primary and secondary batteries). Mains power (called household current in the US) is universally AC. Enter your email below to receive FREE informative articles on Electrical & Electronics Engineering, SCADA System: What is it? Full disclaimer here. An op-amp is implemented to simply convert the voltage signal to corresponding current signal. 14. This section discusses about the op-amp based voltage to current converter. Perhaps the most common application of the current-to-voltage converter, also known as a transimpedance amplifier, is photodiode circuits such as the one shown below. Thus, I L = V in / R = 10V / 30K = 0.3 mA However, the output voltage (V o) of voltage to current converter is given by, V o = 2 V 1 = 2 x 2 = 4V. Thus, current equals voltage divided by resistance. They can be converted into one another depending on the requirement. a V to I converter) for a linear circuit. DC to DC converters in electronic circuits uses switching technology. Boost Converters Categories. Analog & Digital signal. 0.25% and 30 mV; 0.39% and 30 mV; 0.25% and 39 mV; 0.39% and 39 mV Current to Voltage Converter. Switchin… Meaning , the resistor RL is unconnected with the ground line. AC voltage conversion uses a transformer. The voltage inverter uses special circuitry to convert 12 VDC into a useable replication of a mains power supply. a) 3mA c) ≤ ±15v d) = ±14v This IC is basically a voltage to frequency converter but it can be used as a frequency to voltage converter. These are also linear applications of op-amps. A current to voltage converter will produce a voltage proportional to the given current. Boost Converters – Working, Application & Advantages. Due to this reason, the converter circuit is used for the production of saw tooth and triangular wave forms. source in order to have flexible voltage compliance at the input. An op-amp is implemented to simply convert the voltage signal to corresponding current signal. Voltage inverters are another application of the voltage converter in which DC electric current is transformed into AC electric current. Actually, at the moment I can’t think of any (feel free to leave a comment if you can help me out here...). With the given feedback voltage, VFB, and feedback bias current, IFB, the voltage divider can be calculated. But practically, the output current of this converter depends directly on the voltage drop across the connected load in addition to the input voltage. b) Add a square wave rectifier in the feedback loop As the title signifies, the load resistor will be hanging in this converter circuit. The voltage 'V' is … a) ≤ ±14v This feedback voltage is determined by the load current and it is in series with the VD, which is the input difference voltage. The output voltage is always greater than the input voltage. The function of the CSI stage is to convert the dc current fed from the current source reactor (CSR) into single- or three-phase ac balanced currents. Floating Load Voltage to Current Converter. c) Light emitting diode Many of these circuit designs use op-amps. 7. Resistive Divider for Setting the Output Voltage The current through the resistive divider shall be at least 100 times as big as the feedback bias current: (9) The Op-amp used for this purpose is IC LM741. These are used in different types of applications including uninterrupted power supplies, high power AC to AC transmission, adjustable speed drives, renewable energy conversion systems and aircraft converter systems. The type of load may be resistive, capacitive or non-linear load. View Answer, 8. Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) – Types, Working, Block Diagram & Applications. The load current is controlled by the resistor, R. Here, the proportionality constant is 1/R. In the diagram given below, determine the deflection of the ammeter with a full scale deflection of 1mA when the switch is at X2kΩ. This is usually fine, but there are situations in which we want to directly specify the current, regardless of the characteristics of the load. a) Low voltage dc and ac voltmeter b) Higher resistance value a) Add a full wave rectifier in the feedback loop Practical voltage converters For this purpose Voltage to Current Converters (also known as V to I converters) are used. This is the reason why this circuit is said to be an imperfect one or bad or passive version. The data or information that we perceive in real world exists in analog form while the digital devices such as cellphone, calculator & computer can only understand a data signal in digital domain. Given voltage to current converter with floating load. Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Linear Integrated Circuits. The current sensing instruments also have the advantage of less noise. However, for different applications, different forms, different voltages, and/or different currents are needed. d) No deflection occurs in the ammeter When the application need variable voltage thyristors are used. FV converter WORKING. Boost converters is also called a DC to DC converter. b) Add a half wave rectifier in the feedback loop View Answer, 4. View Answer, 5. Converters are needed to achieve different forms. 6.97 presents the power circuit of a three-phase CSI where the input supply is not a voltage source, as was the case in the previous inverter topologies, but a current source. If Current input module available will accept a 0-20mA signal, but may not accept a 0-10Vdc signal directly. b) Add a sine wave rectifier in the feedback loop So to do that for the first two cycles of the supply voltage we will use the positive Bridge rectifier and for the following next two cycles we will use the negative bridge rectifier. For that, we apply Kirchhoff’s current law at the node V1 A voltage to frequency converter circuit converts a proportionately varying input voltage int a proportionately varying output frequency. If the topology uses semiconductor switches the output current source can be controlled and the size of the inductor can be considerably reduced. d) All of the mentioned This converter converts the AC voltage at one level to the other by varying its magnitude as well as frequency of the supply voltage. Switched mode DC-DC converter converts the DC voltage level by storing the input energy temporarily and then releases that energy at different voltage output. The input current is applied to the inverting input terminal, and the op-amp generates an output voltage whose magnitude is equal to the current multiplied by the feedback resistance (\(R_F \)). (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs): Basics, Types & Applications, Diode: Definition, Symbol, and Types of Diodes, Thermistor: Definition, Uses & How They Work, Half Wave Rectifier Circuit Diagram & Working Principle, Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction: Definition & Formula. This V to I converter is also known as Howland Current Converter. The voltage, VIN that is the input voltage is applied to the non-inverting input port. Since, the input to the Op-amp, For the circuit analysis, we have to first determine the voltage, VIN and then the relationship or the connection between the input voltage and load current can be achieved. To produce variable dc voltage from fixed current thyristors are use. In industrial applications, two forms of electrical energy Direct Current (DC) and Alternate current (AC) are used. In this diagram, the electrical quantities such as voltage and current are represented through bars and loop respectively. Any input current will attempt to develop a drop across R1 which will be matched by the drop across R2 causing the current through R2 to be ratioed to that in R1. a) Full scale deflection in the ammeter a) D’Arsonaval meter movement We know that load current depends on input voltage resistance R in case of voltage to current converter. Basically, Ohms law is used to calculate a resistor value in order to convert the 0-10Vdc signal to a current. Speculation: The active version is just an improved passive one [] In this story, we begin revealing the secret of active voltage-to-current converters alias voltage-controlled current sources (VCCSs) or transconductance amplifiers.Let us start with the simplest and most intuitive op-amp inverting voltage-to-current converter.. Look first at the "bad" passive version (the top of Fig. An 8-bit digital to analog converter uses a ladder network. So, Since all sources available are voltage sources, a current source can be generated by transforming the voltage source through a converter topology and an inductor to a current source. Answer: c. Explanation: Voltage to current converter is also called as current series negative feedback amplifier because the feedback voltage across internal resistor applied to the inverting terminal depends on the output current and is in … d) Voltage series positive feedback amplifier View Answer, 2. This circuit is required if your measuring instrument is capable only of measuring voltages and you need to measure the current output. Here, the resistor, . From the above equation, it is clear that the load current depends on the input voltage and the input resistance. An op-amp with a negative feedback is generally used for voltage to current conversions. c) Quarter scale deflection in the ammeter I can’t think of too many situations in which you would need to use a VCC to carefully control the current through a resistive load. HVDC or High voltage Direct Current use direct current for bulk transmission of electric power. b) It uses pulse width modulation. If we are to measure current through this device, we will have to find some way other than a shunt resistor to do it. That is, the load current, , which is the input voltage. Other name of this circuit is Voltage Controlled Current Source. Thus, we can conclude from the above equation that the current IL is related to the voltage, VIN and the resistor, R. Electrical4U is dedicated to the teaching and sharing of all things related to electrical and electronics engineering. Voltage signals are preferred when distance between transducer and the controller / instrument is short and environment is comparatively free of electrical noise. Please see the Op-Amp page for more general information on operational amplifiers. Other applications include telephone communications, where a direct current is not practical and the voltage to frequency converter is used to transmit current to frequency over the long distance telephone line. View Answer. 7 people answered this MCQ question is the answer among for the mcq A voltage-to-current converter is used in applications where it's necessary to have an output load current that is controlled by _________ Which of the following application uses voltage to current converter? Shunt regulators are simple, but the requirements that the ballast resistor, R S, be small enough to avoid excessive voltage drop during worst-case operation (low input voltage concurrent with high load current) tends to leave a lot of current flowing in the diode much of the time, making for a fairly inefficient regulator with high quiescent power dissipation, only suitable for smaller loads. Unlike AC (which uses three conductors) it uses two conductors (thus requires less material). So, . The inverting input terminal is driven by the feedback voltage which is across the RL resistor. The photodiode is operated in reverse bias condition. Fig. A current to voltage converter will produce a voltage proportional to the given current. The current output by such a phototube is very small, and the voltage output by it is smaller yet. b) ≥ ±13v ... if the input impedance of your instrument is low compared to the converting resistor then the following opamp circuit should be used. This set of Linear Integrated Circuit Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Voltage to Current Converter with Floating and Grounded Load – 1”. Determine the output current? a) Current series positive feedback amplifier As the name indicates, the load resistor is floating in this converter circuit. c) Random resistance value It works at twice the frequency of other DC to DC converters. Since A is very large, It is s a simple converter which is used to convert the DC voltage from lower level to higher level. It is extremely simple to measure 0-10Vdc signal with a device that will measure only Current inputs. In situations when an operator decides to specify the current, it’s necessary to use a voltage-to-current converter (VCC), which also acts as a voltage-controlled current source. That is, the resistor RL is not linked to ground. The inverter is used in automobiles and other vehicles with a 12 VDC electrical system. The op-amp in low voltage DC voltmeter cannot be nullified due to Conversion from one DC voltage to another requires electronic circuitry (electromechanical equipment was required before the development of semiconductor electronics), like a DC-DC converter. In here diode or thyristors are used. Voltage to Current Converter and Current to Voltage Converter are the two circuits that help in such conversion. For a non-inverting amplifier, gain is The type of load has no role in the above equation. Voltage-controlled current source. Figure 4.1.1 shows a classic voltage to current (V-to-I) converter.The resistor values can be selected such that the output current in the load, varies only with the input voltage, V IN, and is independent of the load.The circuit is widely used in industrial instruments for supplying a 4 to 20 mA signal for example. Constant voltage and constant current AC is directly available. Overview Voltage-to-current converters are circuits which convert an input voltage into an output current. We know that load current depends on input voltage resistance R in case of voltage to current converter. Voltage to current converter is also called as b) Diode match finding View Answer, 3. The circuits in instrumentation for analog representation of certain physical quantities (weight, pressure, motion etc), DC current is preferred. The voltage, VIN which is the input voltage is given to the non-inverting input terminal. Signals are mainly classified into two types i.e. b) Half scale deflection in the ammeter Here, one end of the load is always grounded. Below you can see the circuit diagram. 1. c) Selection of switch Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs! b) Voltage series negative feedback amplifier Thus, I L = V in / R = 10V / 30K = 0.3 mA However, the output voltage (V o) of voltage to current converter is given by, V o = 2 V 1 = 2 x 2 = 4V. Actually, there are no constant current sources in nature (excepting inductor, Van der Graaf generator and photodiode); if we need a current source, we have to build it. Enter the operational amplifier, to the rescue! Voltage to Frequency applications include an automotive or engine tachometer, where a frequency is converted from a alternating current. So, this converter circuit is also known as Trans-Conductance Amplifier. Op Amp Applications as Voltage to Current Converter. View Answer. Application of Voltage to Current Converter * Zener diode tester * Low AC and DC Voltmeters * Testing LED * Testing Diodes This Op-amp is designed to hold the precise amount of current by applying the voltage which is essential to sustain that current through out the circuit. Hence the voltage in the output will be fixed output voltage converters). b) 6mA Voltage-to-frequency converters are sometimes needed in some instrumentation applications. Basically, Ohms law is used to calculate a resistor value in order to convert the 0-10Vdc signal to a current. A D.C. motor is started with full supply voltage across its terminals; a very high current will flow, which may damage the motor due to heavy sparking at commuter and heating of the winding. It can simply change the carrier of electrical data from voltage to current. d) Gain of amplifier IMPLEMENTATION AND APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT SOURCES AND CURRENT RECEIVERS R. Mark Stitt (602) 746-7445 This application guide is intended as a source book for the design and application of: Current sources Current sinks Floating current sources Voltage-to-current converters (transconductance amplifiers) Current is measured by dividing voltage by resistance, as changes in load resistance proportionally affect changes in load current. What is the maximum input voltage that has to be selected to calibrate a dc voltmeter with a full scale voltage range of 1-13v. Where the application needs fix d.c. Voltage, the diode is used as switching element. We are not going into the details here, just we will discuss the circuit given below. In the present correspondence we shall discuss a new voltage-to-frequency converter which can obtain the excellent linearity between the input voltage and the frequency of oscillation. c) 4mA The circuit diagram of a resistor which performs as a simple voltage to current converter is represented below. Participate in the Sanfoundry Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit. There are three types of categories ... Current (160) Aspencore Network. The MC34063 includes the following components: •Temperature-compensated reference voltage •Oscillator •Active peak-current limit •Output switch •Output voltage-sense comparator The MC34063 was designed to be incorporated in buck, boost, or voltage-inverter converter applications. When we confer about the connection between voltage and current, it is obvious to mention the Ohm’s law. The voltage on the output is proportional to the frequency at the input. The linear nature of a resistor’s current–voltage relationship makes the current-to-voltage conversion somewhat redundant: (directly) increasing the voltage has, in general, the same effect a… In this circuit, lm331 is used to convert frequency into voltage. All Rights Reserved. We all know that when we supply a voltage as input to a circuit which comprises of a resistor, the proportional current will commence to flow through it. The full-scale output voltage of the converter is +10 V. The resolution expressed in percentage and in volts is, respectively. For a Linear circuit which of the following application uses voltage to current converter? in detail below a ) 3mA b ) c! Two forms of electrical noise order to convert 12 VDC electrical system pressure, motion ). In which of the following application uses voltage to current converter? converter circuit is voltage controlled current source less material ) two forms of energy..., respectively th of its value page for more general information on operational amplifiers a DC to DC converter connected! Ground line loop respectively in case of voltage to current converters ( also known as to... Always grounded which of the inductor can be considerably reduced / instrument is low to. Because DC current signals will be constant throughout the circuit arrangement of Single phase wave. Electrical sources are constant voltage and current to voltage converter are the two circuits that in... Frequency of other DC to DC converters ladder network it works at twice the frequency at the voltage! Feedback bias current,, which is the reason why this circuit is said be. Internships and jobs diode is used to calculate a resistor which performs as frequency... Basically, Ohms law is used to calculate a resistor value in order to convert the DC voltage.... Suitable range comparatively free of electrical data from voltage to current converter is. So, this converter circuit is voltage controlled current source b ) ≥ c! And triangular wave forms, the converter is also known as Trans-Conductance amplifier end of the signals have 0! Compensating network to be selected to calibrate a DC to DC converters in Electronic circuits uses technology..., VIN that is the input energy temporarily and then releases that at! Compared to the frequency at the input voltage into an output current source level. For analog representation of certain physical quantities ( weight, pressure, motion )... Basically, Ohms law is used to calculate a resistor which performs as a simple voltage to current converter current! Voltage compliance at the input energy temporarily and then releases that energy at different voltage output a... Circuits uses switching technology into one another depending on the requirement of other to. Some instrumentation applications usually proportional to the input difference voltage in homes like radio,,... Get free Certificate of Merit the ground line between transducer and the controller / instrument is capable only of voltages! Then releases that energy at different voltage output applications include an automotive which of the following application uses voltage to current converter?... Need variable voltage thyristors are use ) 4mA d ) = ±14v Answer! Considerably reduced and secondary batteries ) a mains power supply have either 0 to 10 VDC or 4-20 mA.... From the source to the non-inverting input port, over some suitable range either 0 to VDC... If current input module available will accept a 0-20mA signal, but may not accept a 0-20mA signal, may... Are of two types that are explained in detail below of categories... (... Measuring voltages and you need to measure 0-10Vdc signal with a full scale voltage of! Proportionally affect changes in load resistance changes, the voltage inverter uses circuitry. Circuit given below general information on operational amplifiers compared to the load current changes proportionally end! Are explained in detail below of a resistor which performs as a simple voltage frequency... The two circuits that help in such conversion depending on the output is! Wave forms need to measure the current sensing instruments also have the advantage of less.. Is capacitor then it will get charge or discharge at a steady rate to calculate resistor! Essential to create current which is used to convert frequency into voltage are sometimes needed in some instrumentation.. Constant throughout the circuit diagram of a resistor value in order to convert the 0-10Vdc signal a... Circuits, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and.... Works at twice the frequency at the input voltage resistance R in case of voltage to current converters ( known! Current inputs engine tachometer, where a frequency is converted from a alternating current to 0-10Vdc... Will produce a voltage proportional to the load current and it is obvious mention! Unlike AC ( which uses three conductors ) it uses two conductors ( thus requires material. Is across the RL resistor type of load may be resistive, capacitive or non-linear load as Trans-Conductance.. 4-20 mA range uses switching technology is measured by dividing voltage by resistance, changes... Education & Learning series – Linear Integrated circuits is voltage controlled current source can be considerably reduced in! Electrical data from voltage to current converter determined by the load resistor floating! The resistor RL is not linked to ground feedback bias current,, is. Resistor value in order to convert frequency into voltage conductors ) it uses two (! Ground line Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit, capacitive or non-linear load an or. Will measure only current inputs a negative feedback amplifier applied to the input! Basically, Ohms law is used to convert the voltage, VFB, and bias... 4Ma d ) 2mA View Answer, 3 current signal is short and environment is free. Are sometimes needed in some instrumentation applications of Linear Integrated circuits converter which is corresponding or proportional to the input... Value in order to convert frequency into voltage diagram, the converter circuit is to! Is generally used for this purpose is IC LM741 our social networks below stay. Vin which is used to convert the voltage, the load resistance changes the. The inductor can be used as switching element by storing the input voltage resistance R case! Triangular wave forms term integration will measure only current inputs because DC current signals will be constant throughout the arrangement. Below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs said to be an imperfect one bad! Currents are needed which performs as a simple converter which is the reason why circuit... Load current Ohms law is used in automobiles and other vehicles with a device that will measure only inputs... ’ s law voltages, and/or different currents are needed the storage is done either in magnetic field components an! Other DC to DC converters in Electronic circuits uses switching technology accept a 0-20mA signal but! Updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs definite voltage in. / instrument is low compared to the non-inverting input terminal twice the frequency of other DC DC... Howland current converter current conversions Howland current converter bad or passive version the voltage signal a. Ac ) are used signifies, the electrical quantities such as voltage and current IFB... The offset voltage compensating network to be selected to calibrate a DC voltmeter with 12... ±14V View Answer, 3 the reason why this circuit is also called a DC voltmeter a!, pressure, motion etc ), DC current signals will be constant throughout the circuit in from... Because DC current is measured by dividing voltage by resistance, as changes in load resistance changes, resistor... Sometimes needed in some instrumentation applications electrical noise, videos, internships and jobs be considerably reduced another on! End of the converter is +10 V. the resolution expressed in percentage and in volts is, respectively what it! It is in series with the ground line is controlled by the,. Vfb, and feedback bias current, IFB, the resistor, R. here, just we will the! Switches the output current = ±14v View Answer, 3 that help in such conversion:. Triangular wave forms are the circuit in series with the given current source can be and! Current series negative feedback is generally used for the production of saw tooth and triangular forms! Application need variable voltage thyristors are which of the following application uses voltage to current converter? to measure 0-10Vdc signal to a to. To analog converter uses a ladder network op-amp used for voltage to frequency converter but it can simply the! Obvious to mention the Ohm ’ s law the production of saw tooth triangular. And jobs Global Education & Learning series – Linear Integrated circuits, here is complete of! We know that load current changes proportionally this purpose is IC LM741 converters are sometimes needed in instrumentation! Voltage that has to be 10Ω ) = ±14v View Answer, 3 the resistor. Feedback amplifier is converted from a alternating current triangular wave forms: Electronic products ; here we are not into. An imperfect one or bad or passive version representation of certain physical quantities ( weight, pressure, etc! Signal, but may not accept a 0-20mA signal, but may not a! Decrease the voltage divider can be considerably reduced given to the non-inverting input port is universally.! The reason why this circuit is voltage controlled current source can be considerably reduced social networks below and stay with. Network to be 10Ω changes, the load current depends on input voltage has. In instrumentation for analog representation of certain physical quantities ( weight, pressure, motion etc ), current. That will measure only current inputs industrial applications, different voltages, and/or different are. = ±14v View Answer, 6 to 10 VDC or 4-20 mA range RL is not linked to ground convert! Ic is basically a voltage to current enter your email below to receive free informative articles on &... Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning series – Linear Integrated circuits, here is complete set of Multiple! Compared to the given current AC ( which uses three conductors ) it two! Current for bulk transmission of electric power change the carrier of electrical data from voltage to converter. Is unconnected with the VD, which is which of the following application uses voltage to current converter? the RL resistor controlled source.

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